Polymer Synthesis and Characterisation

High Internal Phase Emulsion Polymerization

  • High Internal Phase Emulsion polymerization (HIPE) belongs to a class derived from emulsion. Poly(HIPE) involves the polymerization of the continuous phase, consisting of a large volume of porogenic liquid (water) as dispersed phase, with volume fraction above 0.74 and as high as 0.99. HIPE is stabilized by surfactant/surfactants, such that inversion to the corresponding dilute emulsion is prevented. Following polymerization and removal of dispersed phase yields an open-cellular, and low density foam.
  • Our work is mainly focused on synthesis and characterization of poly(HIPE) exhibiting super absorption properties. In the time-conversion study the number of parameters such as new initiator type, its concentration, inhibitor concentration, temperature, time, stirring speed, surfactant concentration on acrylate monomers were evaluated.

Refereces

  • Chavan, N. N.; Ingavle, G. C.; Shaikh, A. A., Qureshi, M. S.; Ponrathnam, S.; and Merigan, S.; Five patent disclosure letters filed at P&G, USA
  • Chavan, N. N.; Ingavle, G. C.; Shaikh, A. A., Qureshi, M. S.; Ponrathnam, S.; and Merigan, S.; Five patent disclosure letters filed at P&G, USA
  • G. C. Ingavle, A. A. Shaikh, S. S. Bhongale, S. Scaria, N. N. Chavan, M. S. Qureshi, and S. Ponrathnam : "Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) of 2-EHA, 2-EHMA and EGDA With Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds," Paper presented at International Conference on “Polymers for Advanced Technology” (MACRO-2006), Dec. 17-20, 2006 at National Chemical Laboratory, Pune – 411008, India.
  • Eldhose K. Peter, M. Momin, K. Mulani and N. N. Chavan, " High Internal Phase Emulsion Polymerization of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate, 2-Ethyl Hexyl Methacrylate and Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate using Phase Transfer Agents", Paper presented at “International Conference on Advanced Materials”, Feb. 18-21, 2008, ICAM 2008, School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India, Page 220 (2008) FMA-06.

Heavy Metal Ion Separation using Polymer Supported Catalysts

  • Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lungs and bladder. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration in drinking water exceeding 50 µgL-1 is detrimental to public health. Toxicity of arsenic varies greatly according to its oxidation state. Inorganic arsenic generally exists in two oxidation states, arsenite (NaAsO3) and arsenate (Na2AsO4). Arsenic commonly present in water is a pH dependent species of arsenic (H3AsO4) and arsenate (H3AsO3) acid systems. In natural water and drinking water, it is mostly found as As(III) and As(V). As(III) is sixty times more toxic than As(V). The maximum permissible concentration of arsenic, according to WHO and US EPA, in drinking water is 10 µg/L. However, arsenic concentrations, about hundred times more than the permissible limit, are found almost all over the world.
  • The absorbent resin beads were prepared from poly(GMA-EGDM) and Poly(AGE-EGDM) and post modified with polyethylene imine(PEI). Beads were modified by PEI that has selectivity for As (III) and As(V). Adsoprption capacities equal to 262 mg/g for poly(GMA-EGDM) and 266 mg/ g for Poly(AGE-EGDM).

Refereces

  • Ganesh Ingavle, Rajeev Tayal, Shaikh Wasif Abdul Lateef, Sanjeev Chaudhari, N. N. Chavan, C. R. Rajan, and S. Ponrathnam : "*Removal of AS(III) and AS (V) from contaminated water sources by sorption onto novel PEI-attached poly(HIPE) beads," Paper presented at International Conference on “Role of Analytical Chemistry in Nuclear Technology”, (RACNT 2007) BARC, Mumbai, India

Intraocular lens

  • An intraocular lens (IOL) is the artificial lens, surgeons implant to replace the eye's crystalline lens that must be removed once it becomes cloudy. The main job of the IOL is to focus light onto the back of the eye (or retina), Retina: The transmitter located at the back of your eye that sends the images to your brain, just as a natural, healthy eye lens would. From here, the light rays are converted into electrical impulses that travel to the brain, where they are then converted into images. If the light isn't focused correctly on the retina, then the brain can't process the images accurately.
  • Acrylate copolymers were synthesised using bulk free radical polymerization. The copolymers showed desired properties such as low glass transition temperature (Tg was less than 20oC), low hydrophobicity (less than 2 wt %), high refractive index (exceeded 1.56), good optical transparency in visible region (more than 90 %), and high thermal stability (more than 290oC), and was exhibited controllable unfolding and good cytocompatibility.

Refereces

  • R.V. Ghorpade, S.M. Bhosle, S. Ponrathnam, C.R. Rajan, N.N. Chavan, R. Harikrishna, "Synthesis and photopolymerization kinetics of 2-Phenylethyl(meth)acrylates studied by photo DSC", J. Polym. Res. 19, 9811 (2012)

Chiral Drug Resolution

  • Chiral phenomena play significant roles in nature. The synthesis and applications of optically active polymers are topics currently attracting much consideration in recent times, due to the wealthy and multifaceted architecture of macromolecular chirality as compared to that of small molecules. Because of unique chiral arrays, nature produces numerous smaller chiral, optically active compunds. Most of the naturallly occurring molecules / macromolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides, are chiral and optically active. Chirality is essential for life.
  • Polymer suppoorted chiral catalysts are developed for chiral seperation

Enzyme immobilization

  • Enzymes are responsible for almost all biosynthetic processes in living cells. These biosynthetic reactions recations proceed under mild and neutral conditions at low temprature and in a quantititaive conversion. This, together with the high catalytic activity and selectivity, makes enzymes highly dedicated catalysts. The reaction rates of enzyme catalysed reactions are typically 10 6 to 10 12 times greater than the uncatalysed reactions but can be as high as 10 17. In general, the selectivity is higher than conventional catalyst and side products are rarely formed.
  • Polymer suppoorted immobilised enzymes are deveoped for organic conversion, polymer synthesis and chiral resolution