Research Interests

Smart nanogels for drug delivery:


Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with ordered pore structure have been synthesized and used as carriers for the anticancer drug curcumin. MSNs were functionalized with amine groups and further attached with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using EDC coupling chemistry, which increased the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of MSNs. The work demonstrates that CMC-functionalized MSNs can be used as potential carriers for loading and release of hydrophobic drugs that otherwise cannot be used effectively in their free form for cancer therapy.


Neha Tiwari, Laxman Nawale, Dhiman Sarkar and Manohar V. Badiger
Carboxymethyl cellulose Grafted Mesoporous Silica hybrid nanogels for enhanced cellular uptake and release of Curcumin
Gels, 3(1), 8 (2017), DOI:10.3390/gels3010008.

Tough epoxy resins and its flexible coatings:


Flexible epoxy novolac coatings were developed by reacting an epoxy novolac resin, Poly[(phenylglycidyl ether)-co-formaldehyde] (PPGEF) with an amine curing agent, 4,4′-diamino-3,3′-dimethyldicyclohexyl methane (BMCHA), cardanol based reactive diluent (Cardolite NC-513) and two different cardanol-based flexibilizers (Cardolite NC-514 and Cardolite NC-547). The influence of structural differences of two flexibilizers on the coating properties was investigated. These coatings exhibited excellent properties and have great potential in industrial applications.


Rajeshwari S. Gour, Kundalik G. Raut and Manohar V. Badiger
Flexible epoxy novolac coatings: use of cardanol-based flexibilizers
Journal of Applied Polymer Science, (2017), DOI:10.1002/app.44920.

Double-crosslinked hydrogels with cleavable cross-links:


We report on the synthesis and characterization of redox sensitive double-cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels using two different cross-linking agents, Jeffamine® and cystamine. The amount of two cross-linking agents was varied in order to synthesize hydrogels with different mechanical strengths. Jeffamine provides mechanical stability to the hydrogels while cystamine incorporates redox sensitivity. These double-cross-linked hydrogels show great promise in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.


Neha Tiwari and Manohar V. Badiger
Enhanced drug release by selective cleavage of cross-links in a double-cross-linked hydrogel
RSC Advances, 6, 102453 - 102461 (2016), DOI:10.1039/c6ra19443e.

Viscometric behaviour of smart polymer electrolytes:


Copolymers of acrylamide (AM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC), differing in molar masses M (52.3 to 227 kDa) and degrees of charging y (0.2 to 0.6), were studied with respect to their viscometric behavior in dilute aqueous solutions containing variable amounts of NaCl.

In another study, intrinsic viscosities were determined for solutions of CMG in pure water and 0.9 wt.-% aqueous NaCl. To avoid the 0/0-type extrapolation typical for Huggins plots, a new procedure was used. For CMG and pure water, this requires only two adjustable parameters: the specific hydrodynamic volume of the polymer in the limit of infinite dilution and a hydrodynamic interaction parameter.


Suresha P. R, Manohar V. Badiger and Bernhard Wolf

Polyelectrolytes in dilute solution: viscometric access to coil dimensions and salt effects

RSC Advances, 5 (35), 27674 - 27681 (2015), DOI:10.1039/c5ra01376c


Manohar V. Badiger, Nivika R. Gupta, John Eckelt and Bernhard A. Wolf

Intrinsic viscosity of aqueous solutions of carboxymethyl guar in the presence and absence of salt

Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics., 209 (20), 2087 - 2093 (2008), DOI:10.1002/macp.200800238

Polyurethane based tough hydrogels for drug delivery:


One-pot synthesis and characterization of curcumin incorporated polyethylene glycol–polyurethane (PU-CUR) hydrogels using PEG-4000, 4, 4′-methylenebis (cyclohexyl isocyanate), curcumin in the presence of a cross-linker, 1,2,6 hexanetriol (HT). Besides the physical entrapment, curcumin also provides a partial cross-linking in the 3-D structure of the hydrogel. These gels show promising applications as scaffolds and implants in tissue engineering.



In the previous study we report the synthesis of porous poly(ethylene glycol)–polyurethane (PEG-PU) hydrogels using PEG-4000 as a soft segment and 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexylisocyanate) as a hard segment. The degree of swelling in the hydrogels could be controlled by varying the amount of crosslinking agent, namely 1,2,6-hexanetriol. The observed dynamic storage moduli (E′) for the equilibrium swollen and dry gels were found to be 0.15 and 4.2 MPa, respectively. Interestingly, the porous PEG-PU xerogel also showed E′ of 5.6 MPa indicating a similar mechanical strength upon incorporating porosity into the gel matrix.


Anumon V. Divakaran, Lal B. Azad, Sachin S. Surwase, Arun Torris A. T. and Manohar V. Badiger
Mechanically Tunable Curcumin Incorporated Polyurethane Hydrogels as Potential Biomaterials
Chemistry of Materials., 28 (7), 2120 - 2130 (2016), DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04964 

Anumon V. Divakaran, Arun Torris A. T, Ashish K. Lele and Manohar V. Badiger
Porous poly(ethylene glycol)–polyurethane hydrogels as potential biomaterials
Polymer International., 64 (3), 397 - 404 (2014), DOI:10.1002/pi.4802

Smart polymer gel electrolytes for flexible and high performance all-solid-state-supercapacitors:

An efficient strategy by which a significantly enhanced electrode–electrolyte interface in an electrode for supercapacitor application could be accomplished by allowing in situ polymer gel electrolyte generation inside the nanopores of the electrodes. Three generations of polymer gel electrolytes were developed. Since the nature of the electrode–electrolyte interface is the major performance-determining factor in the case of many electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems, along with the supercapacitors, the developed process can also find applications in preparing electrodes for the devices such as lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, etc.


Bihag Anothumakkool, Arun Torris A. T., Sajna Veeliyath, Vidyanand Vijayakumar, Manohar Virupax Badiger and Sreekumar Kurungot
High performance flexible solid-state supercapacitor with extended nano regime interface through in situ polymer electrolyte generation
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces., 8 (2), 1233 - 1241 (2016), DOI:10.1021/acsami.5b09677 


Bihag Anothumakkool, Arun Torris A. T, Siddheshwar N. Bhange, Manohar V. Badiger and Sreekumar Kurungot

Electrodeposited polyethylenedioxythiophene with infiltrated gel electrolyte interface: a close contest of an all-solid-state supercapacitor with its liquid-state counterpart

Nanoscale., 6, 5944 - 5952 (2014), DOI:10.1039/C4NR00659C


Bihag Anothumakkool, Arun Torris A. T., Siddheshwar N. Bhange, Sreekuttan M. Unni, Manohar V. Badiger and Sreekumar Kurungot

Design of a High Performance Thin All-Solid-State Supercapacitor Mimicking the Active Interface of Its Liquid-State Counterpart

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces., 5 (24), 13397 - 13404 (2013), DOI:10.1021/am404320e.


 Associating polymers or hydrophobically modified polymers:

Thermo-responsive graft copolymers of carboxymethyl guar [CMG] and semitelechelic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPAm] were synthesized by coupling reaction between them using a water-soluble coupling agent namely, 1-(3-(dimethylamino) propyl)-3-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride [EDC]. The graft copolymers, CMG-g-PNIPAm showed enhanced viscosity as compared to the unmodified CMG in the semi-dilute regime. Due to the presence of a LCST side chains [PNIPAm], the graft copolymers exhibited thermo-responsive nature with respect to temperature. These thermo-responsive polymers along with the biodegradability of CMG can have potential application as industrial thickening agent.

In another study we observed some new and interesting observations on the abrupt and large shear-induced thickening of aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified poly(N,N′-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid). High molecular weight copolymer was prepared by free radical copolymerization of N,N′-dimethylacrylamide [DMA] and acrylic acid [AA] and was subsequently modified to different extents using a hydrophobic compound, namely, 3-pentadecylcyclohexylamine [3-PDCA], which is derived from a renewable resource material, cashew nutshell liquid [CNSL]. At moderate shear rates some of these hydrophobically modified copolymers exhibited an abrupt shear-induced thickening in which the viscosity of the samples increased severalfold.

Hydrophobically modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (HMPVA) polymers were synthesized by potassium t-butoxide-catalyzed reaction of PVA with methyl 3,4,5-tris(n-octyloxy) benzoate (MGC8)/3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy) benzoate (MGC12) and 1,3-propane sultone. Oscillatory experiments on these solutions exhibited gel-like behavior at polymer concentrations of 40–50 g/L. HMPVAs with improved rheological properties show potential applications as thickeners in cosmetic creams, lotions and as drug carriers in pharmaceutical formulations.


Nivika R. Gupta, Pallavi P. Ghute and Manohar V. Badiger
Synthesis and characterization of thermo-sensitive graft copolymer of carboxymethyl guar and poly(N-sopropylacrylamide)
Carbohydrate Polymers., 83 (1), 74 - 80 (2011), DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.07.023


Ashish Lele, Aarti Shedge, Manohar Badiger, Prakash Wadgaonkar and Christophe Chassenieux

Abrupt Shear Thickening of Aqueous Solutions of Hydrophobically Modified Poly(N,N'-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid)

Macromolecules., 43, 10055 - 10063 (2010), DOI:10.1021/ma1017378


Aarti S. Shedge, Prakash P. Wadgaonkar, Ashish K. Lele and Manohar V. Badiger

Hydrophobically modified poly(vinyl alcohol) using alkoxy-substituted methyl gallate: synthesis and rheology

Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics., 48 (10), 1054 - 1063 (2010), DOI:10.1002/polb.21995