Research Group Publications

  • Vijayakrishnan Jeyavani and Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, Crystal Phase and Morphology-controlled Synthesis of Tungsten Oxide Nanostructures for Remarkably Ultrafast Adsorption and Separation of Organic Dyes, Inorganic Chemistry., 61, 18119 - 18134 (2022), DOI:DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c02715.
    IF 5.436 (2021), Simple inorganic routes for the synthesis of WO3 nanostructures with variable crystal phases, WO3·(H2O)0.5 and (NH4)0.33WO3, and their self-assembled structures as nanoplates and nanospheres, respectively, were reported. The morphologies and formation of nanoplates and nanospheres were controlled by changing the solvent amount (H2O/n-propanol) in the solvothermal reactions without any stabilizing agent or surfactant. The adsorption properties of the WO3 nanostructures were studied, and it was found that nanospheres show remarkably higher and ultrafast adsorption of methylene blue (MB) in comparison to nanoplates and commercial WO3. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, mechanism, and reusability of (NH4)0.33WO3 nanospheres were systematically studied. The nanospheres exhibited an exceptionally high adsorption rate K2 of 17.24 g·mg–1·min–1 and the maximum adsorption capacity of 116 mg·g–1 for MB. The adsorption cycle of nanospheres was examined, and the removal efficiency of MB remained at ?98–99% even after three regeneration cycles. In addition, (NH4)0.33WO3 nanospheres exhibited excellent selective adsorption performance toward several cationic dyes, including MB, malachite green (MG), safranin O (SO), crystal violet (CV), and separate MO, a negatively charged dye, with a separation efficiency of 99.93 and 77.31% from binary and pentanary dye mixture solutions, respectively, at neutral pH.
  • Supriya Hanmant Gaikwad and Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, Synthesis of 2D MoO3-x/N-doped-Carbon Nanocomposite via in situ Carbonization of Layered (NH4)Mo3O9-(NH4)2Mo4O13-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Exceptionally Efficient Adsorption and Separation of Organic Dye, Environmental Science: Nano (just accepted) Advance Article., , (2022), DOI:
    IF: 9.473 MoO3-x/N-doped-carbon (MoO3-x/N-C) nanocomposites with nanobelt structures were prepared by the in situ carbonization of the (NH4)Mo3O9–(NH4)2Mo4O13/oleylamine–oleic acid hybrids, and were designed using a two-step tailored nanoemulsion method followed by a solvothermal process. The MoO3?x/N-C nanocomposites possess high stability in a wide pH range of 1–11. In addition to the formation mechanism, detailed studies on adsorption properties, including adsorption isotherms, kinetics, mechanism, and reusability of the MoO3-x/N-C nanocomposites were systematically studied. The effects of various parameters on the adsorption characteristics, such as adsorbate concentration, contact time, pH, and temperature, were also evaluated. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and adsorption mechanism of MB from an aqueous solution showed that the adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetics and intraparticle diffusion model. The adsorption isotherm study demonstrated that the Langmuir isotherm model could illustrate the experimental data with a maximum adsorption capacity value of ?1360 mg g-1, which turns out to be the highest among the previously reported adsorbents based on MoO3 nanomaterials, and is attributed to multiple adsorption mechanisms including electrostatic, pi-pi stacking, and H-bonding interactions between the MB dye and the MoO3-x/N-C nanocomposites. Thermodynamic analysis suggested that MB adsorption onto the MoO3-x/N-C nanocomposites was spontaneous and endothermic. Additionally, the adsorption and desorption cycles were examined for 100 ppm aqueous MB solution, where the removal efficiency by the MoO3-x/N-C nanocomposites remained at ~99% even after four regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the MoO3-x/N-C nanocomposites could selectively adsorb MB from a binary solution mixture containing two times higher concentrations of an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), and the separation efficiency obtained was ~99% at neutral pH. More significantly, the MoO3-x/N-C nanocomposites could successfully and simultaneously adsorb several cationic dyes, including MB,malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), safranin O (SO), and separate an anionic dye, MO, from quaternary and pentanary dye mixture solutions with a separation efficiency of ~75% and 62%, respectively, at neutral pH. To the best of our knowledge, the effective separation of a single component by molybdenum oxide-based nanomaterials via a simple batch separation technique from a four/five-component mixed interfering analyte, close to a real matrix system, in an aqueous medium at neutral pH has not been reported so far. Therefore, the MoO3-x-based nanocomposite could be a new promising material for application in dye wastewater treatment.
  • K. Asokan, † M. K. Patil, † S. P. Mukherjee, * S. B. Sukumaran And * T. Nandakumar. (†Authors contributed equally), Scalable Mechanochemical Synthesis of Beta-Ketoenamine-linked Covalent Organic Frameworks for Methane Storage, Chemistry - An Asian Journal (just accepted)., , (2022), DOI:
    IF : 4.568; In the current scenario of increased pollution and releasing toxic gases by burning petroleum products, switching to natural gas is more promising for reducing CO2 emissions and air pollutants. Hence, research on Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas is gaining more value. However, natural gas primarily consists of CH4, which has less energy density than conventional fuels. Interestingly, since the C?H ratio of CH4 gas is 1?:?4, it is easily combustible, gives less carbon footprint, and reduces unburnt hydrocarbon pollution. Hence, research on storing and transporting CH4 has utmost importance, and porous materials are one of the suitable candidates for storing CH4. Herein we report the scalable synthesis of highly porous and crystalline covalent organic frameworks for storing CH4 at room temperature and pressure. Two COFs, namely, Tp-Azo and Tp-Azo-BD(Me)2, synthesized in 1?kg at ?45?g batch scale using a Planetary mixer, displayed a maximum BET surface area of around 3345?m2/g, and 2342?m2/g and CH4 storage of 174.10?cc/cc and 151?cc/cc, respectively. A comparison of the CH4 sorption of Tp-Azo and Tp-Azo-BD(Me)2 COFs synthesized in different batches has a variation of only ±5?cc/cc and shows the consistency in bulk scale synthesis of COFs. The cyclic equilibrium CH4 adsorption studies showed the COFs are stable with consistent CH4 adsorption and desorption cycles. The present study is a step towards the scalable mechanochemical synthesis of COFs for gas storage applications.
  • Vijayakrishnan Jeyavani, Rajendra Kumar, Pattayil Alias Joy And and Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, MgB2/NaNO2-PVA Free-standing Polymer Composite Film as a Green Firework: A Step towards Environmental Sustainability, Bulletin of Materials Science., 45, 175 (1-9) (2022), DOI:
    We have demonstrated a simple fabrication methodology of free-standing polymer composite film firework that sparkles, provides colour display and moderate sound, yet is less polluting. The polymer composite film fireworks are composed of magnesium boride (MgB2), sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). This study also suggested that a flammable, explosive powder composition can be made of two very common inorganic precursors, mainly NaNO2 and MgB2. This is the first report demonstrating composite film fireworks with new flammable composition using metal boride as a primary precursor, which can also be used in conventional fireworks fabrication, replacing the traditional fuel, mainly gunpowder. The film fireworks were free from charcoal, sulphur, metal powder and paper. Therefore, they substantially lower the odour and COx, NOx emissions and minimize the substantial trash generated when burned. Most importantly, film firework‘s minimum ignition temperature and exothermic decomposition temperature are much higher than the ambient temperature; hence are safe to handle. IF: 1.983 (2021)
  • Prachi Kour, Mallu Chenna Reddy, * Shiv Pal, Siraj Sidhik, Tisita Das, Padmini Pandey, Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee, * Sudip Chakraborty, * Aditya D. Mohite And * and Satishchandra Ogale*, An Organic-Inorganic Perovskitoid with Zwitterion Cysteamine Linker and Its Crystal-Crystal Transformation to Ruddlesden-Popper Phase, Angew. Chem., 60, 18750 - 18760 (2021), DOI:10.1002/anie.202105918.
    IF 12.959; We demonstrate synthesis of a new low-D hybrid perovskitoid (a perovskite-like hybrid halide structure, yellow crystals, P21/n space group) using zwitterion cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol) linker, and its remarkable molecular diffusion-controlled crystal-to-crystal transformation to Ruddlesden-Popper phase (Red crystals, Pnma space group). Our stable intermediate perovskitoid distinctly differs from all previous reports by way of a unique staggered arrangement of holes in the puckered 2D configuration with a facesharing connection between the corrugated-1D double chains. The PL intensity for the yellow phase is 5 orders higher as compared to the red phase and the corresponding average lifetime is also fairly long (143 ns). First principles DFT calculations conform very well with the experimental band gap data. We demonstrate applicability of the new perovskitoid yellow phase as an excellent active layer in a selfpowered photodetector and for selective detection of Ni2+ via On-Off-On photoluminescence (PL) based on its composite with few layer black phosphorous.
  • Supriya Hanmant Gaikwad and Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, 2D MoO2/N-Doped-Carbon Nanosheets as SERS Tweezer: Non-Noble Metal Reusable Substrate for Selective Organic Dye Detection, ACS Applied Nano Materials (Full paper)., 4, 11611 - 11624 (2021), DOI:
    IF 5.097; The design and synthesis of a highly sensitive and exceptionally selective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with an excellent reusable property are of significant interest because of its vast prospective application in actual and complicated detection environments. Here, a simple synthesis strategy was presented to fabricate crystalline two-dimensional (2D) MoO2/N-doped-carbon nanosheets with the plasmonic property. The morphology, crystal phase, and surface property of MoO2 nanomaterials (NMs) were specifically controlled under suitable reaction conditions. In addition, the plasmonic MoO2/N-doped-carbon NM exhibited a SERS maximum enhancement factor up to 1.38 × 104 with a detection limit as low as 1.0 × 10?6 M. More importantly, the as-synthesized nanocomposite shows high selectivity as a “SERS Tweezer” toward methylene blue (MB) in binary and ternary mixed interfering analyte solutions, preserving detection sensitivity toward MB for three cycles via an “elect-and-eliminate” approach. This strategy will be helpful to design other plasmonic semiconductor NMs for successful tangible applications of selective SERS sensing for trace impurity detections in real and complex environments.
  • Prachi Kour and Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee* , CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite@COF Nanocomposites for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Application in Water, Journal of Materials Chemistry A (JMC A)., 9, 6819 - 6826 (2021), DOI:
    IF: 11.301 (2019); For the first time, we have synthesized all-inorganic CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 perovskite@COF nanocomposites under atmospheric conditions and tuned the crystal structures of the perovskite as well. The nanocomposite is reasonably stable and maintains its crystalline properties even when dipped into water for 60 minutes. The perovskite@COF nanocomposite shows efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance to degrade Methyl orange (10 mL; 20–100 ppm). The rate of photodegradation was about 0.245 min1 with high catalytic activity and recyclability for three to six cycles.
  • Manoj Krishnat Patil And Supriya Hanmant Gaikwad and Shatabdi Porel Mukhejee*, Phase and Morphology-controlled Synthesis of Tunable Plasmonic MoO3-x Nanomaterials for Ultrasensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection, Journal of Physical Chemistry C (JPCC)., 124, 21082 - 21093 (2020), DOI:
    IF: 4.189 (2019); The enhancement of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) property of the plasmonic metal oxide semiconductor nanostructures by controlling their phase, shape, size, and oxygen vacancy to detect trace amounts of organics is of significant interest. In this study, a simple surfactant-free hydrothermal strategy was proposed to fabricate crystalline h-MoO3-x and o-MoO3-x nanomaterials with tunable plasmonic properties. Herein, the crystal phase, morphology, and oxygen vacancy of MoO3-x nanostructures were precisely controlled under suitable synthetic conditions. The plasmonic properties of the assynthesized h-MoO3-x and o-MoO3-x micro-/nanostructures were controlled by adjusting the residual volume in the autoclaving chamber. In addition, the plasmonic MoO3-x exhibited SERS activity with a detection limit as low as 1.0 × 10-9 M and the maximum enhancement factor (EF) up to 6.99 × 105 for h-MoO3-x, while for o-MoO3-x, the detection limit was 1.0 × 10-7 M with the corresponding EF up to 8.51 × 103, comparable with plasmonic noble metal nanomaterials without a “hot spot”.
  • Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee* And Pattayil Alias Joy and Vijayakrishnan Jeyavani, POLYMERIC FLAMMABLE COMPOSITIONS, Provisional Patent filed on July 12, 2019, with CSIR No 2019-NF-0124 (application no 2019012837390), Final Submission on July 12., , (2020).
  • Vijayakrishnan Jeyavani, Sayali Pawar, Arun Dadwal, Pattayil Alias Joy And Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, Size-controlled Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystals: Magnetically separable Reusable Nanocatalysts for Selective Oxidation of Styrene, ChemistrySelect., 4, 6524 - 6531 (2019), DOI:10.1002/slct.201900714.
    IF: 2.109; Superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanocrystals (NCs) with sizes ?6 nm and ?4 nm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method using fatty acids, lauric acid and stearic acid, as the capping agents. The synthesized nanocrystals were well characterized by XRD, FT-IR, XPS, SEM and TEM. The formation mechanism was explored and it was shown that the fatty acid was actually chemisorbed as a carboxylate onto the surface of CFO NCs. The experimental results specify that the size and size distribution of the CFO NCs were highly dependent on the length of fatty acid hydrophobic chain. Corresponding changes of the magnetic properties were investigated by measuring magnetization as a function of field and temperature, which suggest that the CFO NCs were superparamagnetic in nature. The catalytic properties for the oxidation of styrene in organic medium were examined by using the synthesized CFO NCs with sizes ?6 nm and ?4 nm. The synthesized CFO NCs, well dispersible in organic media, were demonstrated to be highly catalytically active, reached 100% conversion of styrene in 12 h with ?77% and ?82% selectivity for styrene oxide respectively. The magnetic CFO nanocatalysts were easily separated and recovered from the reaction medium by an external magnet, and reused for several cycles without losing catalytic selectivity for styrene oxide.
  • Supriya Hanmant Gaikwad, Aswathi Koratti And Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, Facile tuning of Ag@AgCl cubical hollow nanoframes with efficient sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity, Applied Surface Science., 465, 413 - 419 (2019), DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.09.163.
    IF: 6.707; In this work, a facile controlled synthesis of plasmonic photocatalyst, Ag@AgCl hollow cubic cage with the tuning of nanoframe structures was reported. AgCl cubical hollow nanoframes were primarily prepared using sacrificial NaCl template protocol. Ion exchange reaction between Ag+ in the solution and NaCl, in presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) led to continuous nucleation followed by growth of AgCl on the surface of sacrificial NaCl template. The tuning of AgCl nanoframe structures was obtained by changing the AgNO3 concentration in the reactions. Afterwards, ethylene glycol assisted reduction of AgCl, produced Ag@AgCl, the metal@semiconductor composite with the homogeneous distribution of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the AgCl hollow nanoframes. Efficient sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity to degrade Methylene blue (MB) (50 mL; 10 mg/L) with these Ag@AgCl hollow frames was also demonstrated. The plasmonic photocatalysts were exhibited photodegradation rates about 0.098–0.184 min?1 with high catalytic activity and recyclability for five cycles. Additionally, active species entrapping experiments were performed and a possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the synthesized plasmonic photocatalyst was also proposed.
  • T. P. Radhakrishnan, Shatabdi Porel, Aparna Dutta Gupta And D. Ramakrishn, Nanoparticles embedded polymer film for anti bacterial application; Priority application IN 2007-DE2182 dated Oct 18, 2007, Indian Patent - IN2007DE02182 (A) and IN296215 (A1) dated Feb 17, 2017 Apr 22, 2016 and May 4, 2018., , (2018).
  • Thirumalaiswamy Raja*, Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee* And Marimuthu Prabu and Yogita Manikrao Shirke, A single step process for the oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid; Priority application IN 2017-11007873 dated Mar 7, 2017, WO patent - WO2018163198 dated Sep 13, 2018, Indian Patent - IN201711007873 dated Sep 14, 2018., , (2018).
  • Yogita Shirke and Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee* , Selective Synthesis of WO3 and W18O49 Nanostructures: Ligand-free pH-Dependent Morphology Controlled Self-assembly of Hierarchical Architecture from 1D Nanostructure and Sunlight-driven Photocatalytic Degradation, CrystEngComm., 19, 2096 - 2105 (2017), DOI:10.1039/C6CE02518H.
    IF 3.545; In this study, simple inorganic routes for the synthesis of WO3 and W18O49 nanostructures with variable size and self-assembly are reported. The morphologies and formation of stoichiometric WO3 as well as substoichiometric W18O49 single-crystal phase could be controlled by changing the pH of the reactions medium. This synthesis strategy has the advantages that it is one step, aqueous medium-based, and requires no surfactant or stabilizing agent. Furthermore, it also enables the self-assembly of 1D nanorods of WO3 and W18O49 into hierarchical nanostructures as nanorods bundles, cocoons, urchins, fishbones, etc. This synthesis method may open up a new way to control and tune the stoichiometric and substoichiometric composition of metal oxide nanostructures. Efficient sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance to degrade Rhodamine B (100 mL; 40 mg L?1) with these tungsten oxide nanostructures was also demonstrated.
  • Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee, Milan Dinda, Pankaj Arvindbhai Patel And Jitendra Kumar Narinbhai Bharadia , Process for the preparation of polymer composite materials embedded with metal nanoparticles using solar energy; Application 2498/DEL/2015 dated Aug 13, 2015, Indian Patent - IN201711007873 dated Feb 17, 2017., , (2017).
  • Thirumalaiswamy Raja*, Shatabdi Porel Mukherjee*, Marimuthu Prabu And Yogita Manikrao Shirke, “Structural study and single step aerobic oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid over Mn-W oxide nano structures” Invention disclosure, NCL NO. 2017-NF-0025 dated January 24, 2017; CSIR No 2017-NF-0025 (application No 201711007873) with Provisional filling date March 07, 2017, Invention disclosure, NCL NO. 2017-NF-0025 dated January 24, 2017; CSIR No 2017-NF-0025 (application No 201711007873) with Provisional filling date March 07, 2017., , (2017).
  • Porel, S.; Ramakrishna, D.; Hariprasad, E.; Dutta Gupta, A.; Radhakrishnan And T. P., Polymer thin film with in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles as a potent reusable bactericide, Current Science., 101, 927 (2011).
    IF: 0.833 This article was highlighted in (i) Jayaraman, K. S., ‘Stir away for safe drinking water’ Published online 7 October 2011 ( (ii) Gautam, B. Sation magazine, ‘Reusable silver nanoparticles, antibacterial property, India’, Issue 11, 22 Oct-7 Nov, 2011(
  • Ramesh, G. V.; Porel, S.; Radhakrishnan And T. P. , Polymer Thin Films Embedded with In Situ Grown Metal Nanoparticles, Chem. Soc. Rev., 38, 2646 (2009), DOI:10.1039/B815242J.
    IF 34.09
  • Porel, S.; Venkatram, N.; Rao, D. N.; Radhakrishnan And T. P. , In situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrix and Their Optical Limiting Application, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 7, 1887 - 1892 (2007).
    IF 1.556
  • Porel, S.; Venkatram, N.; Rao, D. N.; Radhakrishnan And T. P., Optical Power Limiting in the Femtosecond Regime by Silver Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer Film, J. Appl. Phys., 102, 033107-1 - 033107-16 (2007), DOI:
    IF 2.101
  • Porel, S.; Hebalkar, N.; Sreedhar, B.; Radhakrishnan And T. P., Palladium Nanowire from Precursor Nanowire : Crystal-to-crystal Transformation via In situ Reduction by Polymer Matrix, Adv. Funct. Mater., 17, 2550 - 2556 (2007), DOI:10.1002/adfm.200600770.
    IF 11.38
  • Anthony, S. P.; Porel, S.; Rao, D. N.; Radhakrishnan And T. P. , Thin Films of Metal-Organic Compounds and Metal Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymers for Nonlinear Optical Applications, Pramana-J. Phys., 65, 871 - 879 (2005).
    IF 0.692
  • Porel, S.; Singh, S.; Radhakrishnan And T. P. , Polygonal Gold Nanoplates in a Polymer Matrix, Chem. Commun., , 2387 - 2389 (2005), DOI:10.1039/B500536A.
    IF 6.567
  • Porel, S.; Singh, S.; Harsha, S. S.; Rao, D. N.; Radhakrishnan And T. P. , Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer: In situ Synthesis, Free-standing Films with Highly Monodisperse Silver Nanoparticles and Optical Limiting, Chem. Mater. (Communication)., 17, 9 - 12 (2005), DOI:10.1021/cm0485963.
    Impact Factor: 9.407 This article was the 5th most-accessed publication in Chemistry of Materials in 2005. This was highlighted in (i) Trohalaki, S. MRS Bulletin, 2005, 30, 77; ( (ii) Dellow, N. High Performance Plastics, May 2005, 12. (